Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Act 2005

SCHEDULE 1

PART 1

TREOIRCHINNEADH ÓN gCOMHAIRLE 2002/475 CGB

an 13 Meitheamh 2002

maidir leis an sceimhlitheoireacht a chomhrac

TÁ COMHAIRLE AN AONTAIS EORPAIGH,

Ag féachaint don Chonradh ag bunú an Aontais Eorpaigh, agus go háirithe Airteagal 29, Airteagal 31(e) agus Airteagal 34(2)(b) de,

Ag féachaint don togra ón gCoimisiún 1,

Ag féachaint don Tuairim ó Pharlaimint na hEorpa 2,

De bhrí:

(1) Go bhfuil an tAontas Eorpach fothaithe ar na luachanna uilechoiteanna arb iad dínit an duine, an tsaoirse, an comhionannas agus an dlúthpháirtíocht, an urraim do chearta an duine agus do shaoirsí bunúsacha. Tá sé bunaithe ar phrionsabal an daonlathais agus ar phrionsabal an smacht reachta, prionsabail is coiteann do na Ballstáit.

(2) Tá an sceimhlitheoireacht ar cheann de na sáruithe is tromchúisí ar na prionsabail sin. Daingníonn Dearbhú La Gomera arna ghlacadh ag an gcruinniú neamhfhoirmiúil den Chomhairle ar an 14 Deireadh Fómhair 1995 go bhfuil an sceimhlitheoireacht ina bagairt ar an daonlathas, ar shaorfheidhmiú chearta an duine agus ar an bhforbraíocht eacnamaíoch agus sóisialta.

(3) Is páirtithe na Ballstáit uile nó cuid díobh i roinnt coinbhinsiún a bhaineann leis an sceimhlitheoireacht. De réir Choinbhinsiún Chomhairle na hEorpa an 27 Eanáir 1977 maidir leis an Sceimhlitheoireacht a Dhíothú ní cionta polaitiúla iad cionta sceimh litheoireachta ná ní cionta iad atá bainteach le cionta polaitiúla ná ní tucaidí polaitiúla is siocair leo. Tá Coinbhinsiún maidir le buamálacha sceimhlitheoireachta a dhíothú an 15 Nollaig 1997 agus Coinbhinsiún maidir le maoiniú na sceimhlitheoireachta a dhíothú an 9 Nollaig 1999 glactha ag na Náisiúin Aontaithe. Tá dréachtchoinbhinsiún domhanda in aghaidh na sceimhlitheoireachta á dhréachtú faoi láthair sna Náisiúin Aontaithe.

(4) Ag leibhéal an Aontais Eorpaigh, ghlac an Chomhairle ar an 3 Nollaig 1998 Plean Gníomhaíochta na Comhairle agus an Choimisiúin maidir leis an dóigh is fearr chun forálacha Chonradh Amstardam a chur chun feidhme a bhaineann le limistéar saoirse, slándála agus ceartais 3. Ba chóir aird a thabhairt freisin ar Chonclúidíón gComhairle an 20 Meán Fómhair 2001 agus ar phlean gníomhaíochta chun an sceimhlitheoireacht a chomhrac ón gComhairle Eorpach Urghnách an 21 Meán Fómhair 2001. Rinneadh tagairt don sceimhlitheoireacht i gconclúidíón gComhairle Eorpach in Tampere an 15 agus 16 Deireadh Fómhair 1999, agus ón gComhairle Eorpach in Santa María da Feira an 19 agus 20 Meitheamh 2000. Tá sí luaite freisin sa chumarsáid ón gCoimisiún chuig an gComhairle agus Parlaimint na hEorpa i dtaca le tabhairt suas chun dáta leathbhliantúil an scórchláir chun an dul chun cinn a athbhreithniú maidir le limistéar “saoirse, slándála agus ceartais” a chruthú san Aontas Eorpach (dara leath de 2000). Fairis sin, ar an 5 Meán Fómhair 2001 ghlac Parlaimint na hEorpa moladh maidir le ról an Aontais Eorpaigh sa chomhrac in aghaidh na sceimhlitheoireachta. Ina theannta sin, ba chóir a mheabhrú gur chomhairligh na príomhthíortha tionsclaithe (G7) agus an Rúis ar an 30 Iúil 1996 ag teacht le chéile dóibh i bPáras cúig bheart fichead chun an sceimhlitheoireacht a chomhrac.

(5) Tá an iliomad beart sonrach glactha ag an Aontas Eorpach chun an sceimhlitheoireacht agus an choiriúlacht eagraithe a chomhrac, amhail Cinneadh ón gComhairle an 3 Nollaig 1998 ag cur de chúram ar Europol déileáil le coireanna arna ndéanamh nó ar dóigh go ndéanfaí le linn gníomhaíochtaí sceimhlitheoireachta in aghaidh bheatha an duine, a iomláine coirp, saoirse phearsanta nó maoin 4; Gníomh Comhpháirteach 96/610/CGB ón gComhairle an 15 Deireadh Fómhair 1996 maidir le clár d'inniúlachtaí, scileanna agus sainoilteacht frithsceimhlitheoireachta a chruthú agus a choimeád ar bun chun an comhar frithsceimhlitheoireachta idir na Ballstáit den Aontas Eorpach a éascú 5; Gníomh Comhpháirteach 98/428/CGB ón gComhairle an 29 Meitheamh 1998 maidir le Gréasán Breithiúnach Eorpach a chruthú 6, le freagrachtaí i leith cionta sceimhlitheoireachta, agus go háirithe Airteagal 2 de; Gníomh Comhpháirteach 98/733/CGB ón gComhairle an 21 Nollaig 1998 maidir le cion coiriúil a dhéanamh de rannpháirteachas in eagraíocht choiriúil sna Ballstáit den Aontas Eorpach 7; agus Moladh ón gComhairle an 9 Nollaig 1999 maidir le comhar sa chomhrac in aghaidh grúpaí sceimhlitheoireachta a mhaoiniú. 8

(6) Ba chóir comhfhogasú a dhéanamh i ngach Ballstát ar an sainmhíniú de chionta sceimhlitheoireachta, lena n-áirítear na cionta sin a bhaineann le grúpaí sceimhlitheoireachta. Fairis sin, ba chóir pionóis agus smachtbhannaí a léiríonn tromchúis na gcionta sin a leagan síos i leith daoine nádúrtha agus dlítheanacha a bhfuil cionta den sórt sin déanta acu nó atá freagrach as cionta den sórt sin.

(7) Ba chóir rialacha dlínse a bhunú chun a áirithiú gur féidir an cion sceimhlitheoireachta a ionchúiseamh go héifeachtach.

(8) Táíospartaigh na gcionta sceimhlitheoireachta soghonta agus is gá mar sin bearta sonracha maidir leo.

(9) Toisc nach féidir leis na Ballstáit ag gníomhú go haontaobhach dóibh cuspóirí an ghnímh atá beartaithe a ghnóthú go leordhóthanach agus gur féidir mar sin, toisc an gá atá le cómhalartú, na cuspóirí a ghnóthú níos fearr ag leibhéal an Aontais, féadfaidh an tAontas bearta a ghlacadh i gcomhréir le prionsabal na coimhdeachta. I gcomhréir le prionsabal na comhréireachta, ní théann an Treoirchinneadh seo thar mar is gá d'fhonn na cuspóirí sin a ghnóthú.

(10) Urramaíonn an Treoirchinneadh seo na cearta bunúsacha mar atá arna ráthú sa Choinbhinsiún Eorpach chun Cearta an Duine agus Saoirsí Bunúsacha a Chosaint agus faoi mar a fhabhraíonn siad sna traidisiúin bhunreachtúla is coiteann do na Ballstáit mar phrionsabail de dhlí an Chomhphobail. Urramaíonn an tAontas na prionsabail atá aitheanta in Airteagal 6(2) den Chonradh ar an Aontas Eorpach agus atá le fáil freisin sa Chairt um Chearta Bunúsacha den Aontas Eorpach, go háirithe Caibidil VI de. Ní féidir aon ní sa Treoirchinneadh seo a fhorléiriú amhail is gurb é is aidhm dó cearta nó saoirsí bunúsacha a laghdú nó a shrianadh amhail an ceart chun dul ar stailc, an tsaoirse comhthionóil, comhlachais nó friotail, lena n-áirítear an ceart ag gach duine ceardchumainn a chur ar bun le daoine eile agus bheith ina bhall díobh chun a leasanna a chosaint, agus an ceart chun léirsiú atá gaolmhar leis.

(11) Gníomhartha arna ndéanamh ag fórsaí armtha le linn tréimhsí de choinbhleacht armtha, atá faoi rialú ag an dlí daonnachtúil idirnáisiúnta de réir bhrí na dtéarmaí sin faoin dlí sin, agus gníomhartha arna ndéanamh ag fórsaí armtha an Stáit agus a ndualgais oifigiúla á bhfeidhmiú acu, a mhéad atá siad faoi rialú ag rialacha eile den dlí idirnáisiúnta, níl siad faoi rialú ag an Treoirchinneadh seo,

TAR ÉIS AN TREOIRCHINNEADH SEO A GHLACADH:

Airteagal 1

Cionta sceimhlitheoireachta agus cearta agus prionsabail bunúsacha

1. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú go ndéantar na gníomhartha intinneacha dá dtagraítcar thíos i bpointí (a) go (i), mar atá siad sainithe mar chionta faoin dlí náisiúnta, a fhéadfaidh mar gheall ar a gcineál nó a gcomhthéacs, tír nó eagraíocht idirnáisiúnta a dhochrú go tromchúiseach má dhéantar iad d'fhonn:

—  pobal a imeaglú go tromchúiseach, nó

—  iallach a chur go míchuí ar rialtas nó eagraíocht idirnáisiúnta gníomh a dhéanamh nó staonadh ó ghníomh a dhéanamh, nó

—  na struchtúir bhunúsacha sóisialta, eacnamaíocha, bunreachtúla nó polaitiúla i dtír nó in eagraíocht idirnáisiúnta a dhíchobhsú go tromchúiseach nó a mhilleadh,

a mheas mar chionta sceimhlitheoireachta:

(a)  ionsaithe ar bheatha an duine a fhéadfaidh a bheith ina dtrúig bháis;

(b)  ionsaithe ar iomláine coirp an duine;

(c)  fuadach nó giall a ghabháil;

(d)  cur faoi deara saoráid rialtais nó poiblí, córas iompair, saoráid bonneagair, lena n-áirítear saoráid faisnéise, ardán fosaitheach arna shuíomh ar an scairbh ilchríochach, ionad poiblí nó maoin phríobháideach a léirscrios ar dóigh dó beatha an duine a chur i gcontúirt nó mórchaillteanas eacnamaíoch a dhéanamh;

(e)  aerárthaigh, longa nó córacha eile iompair daoine nó earraí a ghabháil;

(f)  airm, pléascáin nó airm núicléacha bitheolaíocha nó ceimiceacha a mhonarú, a shealbhú, a fháil, a iompar, a sholáthar nó a úsáid, agus taighde a dhéanamh ar airm bhitheolaíocha agus ceimiceacha agus iad a fhorbairt;

(g)  substaintí contúirteacha a scaoileadh nó bheith ina shiocair tinte, tuilte nó pléascán arb é is éifeacht dóibh beatha an duine a chur i gcontúirt;

(h)  cur isteach ar sholáthar uisce, cumhachta nó aon bhunacmhainne nádúrtha eile nó iad a réabadh arb é is éifeacht dóibh beatha an duine a chur i gcontúirt;

(i)  bheith ag bagairt aon cheann de na gníomhartha atá liostaithe in (a) go (h) a dhéanamh.

2. Ní bheidh d'éifeacht ag an Treoirchinneadh seo an oibleagáid a athrú cearta bunúsacha agus prionsabail dlí bunúsacha a urramú mar atá siad leagtha amach in Airteagal 6 den Chonradh ar an Aontas Eorpach.

Airteagal 2

Cionta a bhaineann le grúpa sceimhlitheoireachta

1. Chun críocha an Treoirchinnidh seo, ciallaíonn “grúpa sceimhlitheoireachta” grúpa struchtúrtha ina bhfuil beirt nó níos mó, arna bhunú thar tréimhse ama agus a ghníomhaíonn ar dhóigh chomhbheartaithe chun cionta sceimhlitheoireachta a dhéanamh. Ciallaíonn “grúpa struchtúrtha” grúpa nach gcuirtear le chéile de thaisme chun cion a dhéanamh láithreach agus nach gá go bhfuil rólanna arna sainiú go foirmiúil aige dá chuid ball, leanúnachas ballraíochta ná struchtúr forbartha.

2. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú go bhfuil na gníomhartha intinneacha seo a leanas inphionóis:

(a)  grúpa sceimhlitheoireachta a stiúradh;

(b)  bheith rannpháirteach i ngníomhaíochtaí grúpa sceimhlitheoireachta, go fiú trí fhaisnéis nó acmhainníábhartha a sholáthar, nó trína ghníomhaíochtaí a mhaoiniú ar aon dóigh, agus a bheith ar an eolas go rannchuideoidh an rannpháirteachas sin le gníomhaíochtaí coiriúla an ghrúpa sceimhlitheoireachta.

Airteagal 3

Cionta atá nasctha le gníomhaíochtaí sceimhlitheoireachta

Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú gur féidir na gníomhartha seo a leanas a áireamh ar na cionta atá nasctha leis an sceimhlitheoireacht:

(a)  tromghoid d'fhonn ceann de na gníomhartha atá liostaithe in Airteagal 1(1) a dhéanamh;

(b)  sracaireacht d'fhonn ceann de na gníomhartha atá liostaithe in Airteagal 1(1) a dhéanamh;

(c)  doiciméid riarthacha bréagacha a tharraingt suas d'fhonn ceann de na gníomhartha atá liostaithe in Airteagal 1(1)(a) go (h) agus Airteagal 2(2)(b) a dhéanamh.

Airteagal 4

Gríosú, cabhrú nó neartú, agus iarracht

1. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú go ndéantar inphionóis an gníomh chun gríosú nó cabhrú nó neartú le cion a dhéanamh dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 1(1), Airteagail 2 nó 3.

2. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú go ndéantar inphionóis an iarracht chun cion a dhéanamh dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 1(1) agus Airteagal 3, amach ó shealbhú dá bhforáiltear in Airteagal 1(1)(f), agus an cion dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 1(1)(i).

Airteagal 5

Pionóis

1. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú go ndéantar inphionóis na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 1 go 4 le pionóis choiriúla atáéifeachtach, comhréireach agus athchomhairleach ar a bhfuil an t-eiseachadadh le háireamh.

2. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú go ndéantar inphionóis na cionta sceimhlitheoireachta dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 1(1) agus na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 4, a mhéad a bhaineann siad le cionta sceimhlitheoireachta, le pianbhreitheanna faoi choimeád is troime ná na pianbhreitheanna is infhorchurtha faoin dlí náisiúnta i leith cionta den sórt sin nuair nach bhfuil an intinn speisialta ann atá riachtanach de bhun Airteagal 1(1), ach amháin nuair atá na pianbhreitheanna is infhorchurtha ar na huasphianbhreitheanna is féidir faoin dlí náisiúnta.

3. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun aáirithiú go ndéantar inphionóis na cionta atá liostaithe in Airteagal 2 le pianbhreitheanna faoi choimeád, le huasphianbhreith nach lú ná cúig bliana déag i leith an chiona dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 2(2)(a), agus le huasphianbhreith nach lú ná ocht mbliana i leith na gcionta atá liostaithe in Airteagal 2(2)(b). A mhéad nach dtagraíonn an cion atá luaite in Airteagal 2 (2)(a) ach don ghníomh in Airteagal 1(1)(i), ní lú ná ocht mbliana an uasphianbhreith.

Airteagal 6

Imthosca ar leith

Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú gur féidir na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 5 a laghdú má dhéanann an ciontóir:

(a)  gníomhaíocht sceimhlitheoireachta a thréigean, agus

(b)  faisnéis a sholáthar do na húdaráis riarthacha nó breithiúnacha nach dtiocfadh leo a fháil ar a mhalairt de dhóigh, ag cuidiú leo:

(i) éifeachtaí an chiona a chosc nó a mhaolú;

(ii) na ciontóirí eile a shainaithint nó a thabhairt os comhair an dlí;

(iii) fianaise a aimsiú; nó

(iv) cionta eile dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 1 go 4 a chosc.

Airteagal 7

Dliteanas daoine dlítheanacha

1. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú gur féidir daoine dlítheanacha a chur faoi dhliteanas maidir le haon cheann de na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 1 go 4 arna dhéanamh ar mhaithe leo ag aon duine, ag gníomhú dó go leithleach nó mar chuid d'orgán an duine dlítheanaigh, a bhfuil ionad ceannaireachta aige laistigh den duine dlítheanach, arna bhunú ar cheann de na nithe seo a leanas:

(a)  cumhacht ionadaíochta thar ceann an duine dlítheanaigh;

(b)  údarás chun cinntí a ghlacadh thar ceann an duine dlítheanaigh,

(c)  údarás chun rialú a fheidhmiú laistigh den duine dlítheanach.

2. Ach amháin sna cásanna dá bhforáiltear i mír 1, glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú gur féidir daoine dlítheanacha a chur faoi dhliteanas nuair is mar gheall ar ghanntanas maoirseachta nó rialú ag duine dá dtagraítear i mír 1 a dhéantar na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 1 go 4 ar mhaithe leis an duine dlítheanach sin ag duine faoina údarás.

3. Dliteanas de chuid daoine dlítheanacha faoi mhíreanna 1 agus 2, ní eisiafaidh sé imeachtaí coiriúla in aghaidh daoine nádúrtha is déantóirí, gríosóirí nó cúlpháirtithe in aon cheann de na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 1 go 4.

Airteagal 8

Pionóis in aghaidh daoine dlítheanacha

Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a áirithiú go bhfuil duine dlítheanach atá faoi dhliteanas de bhun Airteagal 7 inphionóis le pionóis atáéifeachtach, comhréireach agus athchomhairleach lena n-áirítear fíneálacha coiriúla nó neamhchoiriúla agus ar a mbeidh pionóis eile le háireamh, amhail:

(a)  eisiamh ó bheith i dteideal sochair nó cabhair poiblí a fháil;

(b)  dícháiliúchán sealadach nó buan ó ghníomhaíochtaí tráchtála a chleachtadh;

(c)  cur faoi mhaoirseacht bhreithiúnach;

(d)  ordú um foirceannadh breithiúnach;

(e)  bunaíochtaí a dhúnadh go sealadach nó go buan a úsáideadh chun an cion a dhéanamh.

Airteagal 9

Dlínse agus ionchúiseamh

1. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a dhlínse a bhunú maidir leis na cionta uile dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 1 go 4 nuair:

(a)  a dhéantar an cion go hiomlán nó go páirteach ar a chríoch. Féadfaidh gach Ballstát a dhlínse a fhairsingiú má dhéantar an cion ar chríoch de chuid Ballstáit;

(b)  a dhéantar an cion ar bord loinge a bhfuil a bratach ar foluain aici nó ar aerárthach atá cláraithe ansin;

(c)  is náisiúnach nó cónaitheoir dá chuid an ciontóir;

(d)  a dhéantar an cion ar mhaithe le duine dlítheanach atá bunaithe ar a chríoch;

(e)  a dhéantar an cion in aghaidh institiúidí nó phobal an Bhallstáit i gceist nó in aghaidh institiúid den Aontas Eorpach nó comhlacht arna chur ar bun i gcomhréir leis an gConradh ag bunú an Chomhphobail Eorpaigh nó leis an gConradh ar an Aontas Eorpach agus a bhfuil a shuíomh aige sa Bhallstát sin.

2. Nuair a thiteann cion faoi dhlínse Ballstát amháin nó níos mó agus nuair is féidir le haon cheann de na Ballstáit i dtrácht ionchúiseamh go bailí ar bhonn na bhfíoras céanna, rachaidh na Ballstáit i dtrácht i gcomhar le chéile chun a chinneadh cé acu ceann a dhéanfaidh na ciontóirí a ionchúiseamh ionas, más féidir, na himeachtaí a lárú in aon Bhallstát amháin. Chuige sin, féadfaidh na Ballstáit dul ar iontaoibh aon chomhlacht nó meicníocht atá bunaithe san Aontas Eorpach d'fhonn an comhar idir na húdaráis bhreithiúnacha a éascú agus a ngníomhaíocht a chomhordú. Tabharfar aird ar dhóigh leanúnach ar na cúinsí seo a leanas:

—  is é an Ballstát an Ballstát ar ar a chríoch a rinneadh na gníomhartha,

—  is é an Ballstát an Ballstát ar náisiúnach nó cónaitheoir dá chuid an déantóir,

—  is é an Ballstát Ballstát tionscnaimh na n-íospartach,

—  is é an Ballstát an Ballstát ar ar a chríoch a fuarthas an déantóir.

3. Glacfaidh gach Ballstát na bearta is gá chun a dhlínse a bhunú freisin maidir leis na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 1 go 4 i gcásanna nuair a dhiúltaíonn sé duine faoi amhras ciona nó duine arna chiontú i gcion den sórt sin a ghéilleadh nó a eiseachadadh chuig Ballstát eile nó chuig tríú tír.

4. Déanfaidh gach Ballstát a áirithiú go bhfolaíonn a dhlínse cásanna ina ndearnadh aon cheann de na cionta dá dtagraítear in Airteagail 2 agus 4 go hiomlán nó go páirteach ar a chríoch, is cuma cá bhfuil an grúpa sceimhlitheoireachta bunaithe nó cá saothraíonn sé a chuid gníomhaíochtaí coiriúla.

5. Ní eisiafaidh an tAirteagal seo dlínse a fheidhmiú in ábhair choiriúla mar atá arna leagan síos ag Ballstát i gcomhréir lena reachtaíocht náisiúnta.

Airteagal 10

Íospartaigh a chosaint agus cuidiú leo

1. Déanfaidh na Ballstáit a áirithiú nach bhfuil imscrúduithe ar na cionta nó ionchúiseamh na gcionta atá folaithe sa Treoirchinneadh seo ag brath ar thuarascáil nó cúiseamh ó dhuine is íospartach, ar a laghad má rinneadh na gníomhartha ar chríoch an Bhallstáit.

2. I dteannta leis na bearta atá leagtha síos i dTreoirchinneadh 2001/220/CGB ón gComhairle an 15 Márta 2001 maidir le seasamh na n-íospartach in imeachtaí coiriúla 1, glacfaidh gach Ballstát, más gá, gach beart is féidir chun cúnamh iomchuí a áirithiú do theaghlaigh na n-íospartach.

Airteagal 11

Cur chun feidhme agus tuarascálacha

1. Glacfaidh na Ballstáit na bearta is gá chun an Treoirchinneadh seo a chomhlíonadh faoi cheann 31 Nollaig 2002.

2. Faoi cheann 31 Nollaig 2002, díreoidh na Ballstáit chuig ArdRúnaíocht na Comhairle agus chuig an gCoimisiún téacs na bhforálacha a thrasuíonn ina ndlí náisiúnta na hoibleagáidí arna bhforchur orthu faoin Treoirchinneadh seo. Ar bhonn tuarascáil arna tarraingt suas ar an bhfaisnéis sin agus ar bhonn tuarascáil ón gCoimisiún, measúnóidh an Chomhairle, faoi cheann 31 Nollaig 2003, an bhfuil na bearta is gá glactha ag na Ballstáit chun an Treoirchinneadh seo a chomhlíonadh.

3. Sonróidh an tuarascáil ón gCoimisiún, ach go háirithe, trasuí na hoibleagáide dá dtagraítear in Airteagal 5(2) i ndlí coiriúil na mBallstát.

Airteagal 12

Cur i bhfeidhm críochach

Beidh an treoirchinneadh seo infheidhme ar Ghiobráltar.

Airteagal 13

Teacht i bhfeidhm

Tiocfaidh an Treoirchinneadh seo i bhfeidhm ar lá a fhoilsithe in Iris Oifigiúil na gComhphobal Eorpach.

Arna dhéanamh i Lucsamburg, an 13 Meitheamh 2002.

Thar ceann na Comhairle

An tUachtarán

M. RAJOY BREY

1 IO C 332, 27.11.2001, Ich. 300.

2 Tuairim a tugadh ar an 6 Feabhra 2002 (nach bhfuil foilsithe fós san Iris Oifigiúil).

3 IO C 19, 23.1.1999, Ich. 1.

4 IO C 26, 30.1.1999, Ich. 22.

5 IO L 273, 25.10.1996, Ich. 1.

6 IO L 191, 7.7.1998, Ich. 4.

7 IO L 351, 29.12.1998, Ich. 1.

8 IO C 373, 23.12.1999, Ich. 1.

PART 2

( Acts adopted pursuant to Title VI of the Treaty on European Union)

COUNCIL FRAMEWORK DECISION

of 13 June 2002

on combating terrorism

(2002/475/JHA)

THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Union, and in particular Article 29, Article 31(e) and Article 34(2)(b) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission 1,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Parliament 2,

Whereas:

(1) The European Union is founded on the universal values of human dignity, liberty, equality and solidarity, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It is based on the principle of democracy and the principle of the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States.

(2) Terrorism constitutes one of the most serious violations of those principles. The La Gomera Declaration adopted at the informal Council meeting on 14 October 1995 affirmed that terrorism constitutes a threat to democracy, to the free exercise of human rights and to economic and social development.

(3) All or some Member States are party to a number of conventions relating to terrorism. The Council of Europe Convention of 27 January 1977 on the Suppression of Terrorism does not regard terrorist offences as political offences or as offences connected with political offences or as offences inspired by political motives. The United Nations has adopted the Convention for the suppression of terrorist bombings of 15 December 1997 and the Convention for the suppression of financing terrorism of 9 December 1999. A draft global Convention against terrorism is currently being negotiated within the United Nations.

(4) At European Union level, on 3 December 1998 the Council adopted the Action Plan of the Council and the Commission on how best to implement the provisions of the Treaty of Amsterdam on an area of freedom, security and justice 3. Account should also be taken of the Council Conclusions of 20 September 2001 and of the Extra-ordinary European Council plan of action to combat terrorism of 21 September 2001. Terrorism was referred to in the conclusions of the Tampere European Council of 15 and 16 October 1999, and of the Santa María da Feira European Council of 19 and 20 June 2000. It was also mentioned in the Commission communication to the Council and the European Parliament on the biannual update of the score-board to review progress on the creation of an area of ‘freedom, security and justice’ in the European Union (second half of 2000). Furthermore, on 5 September 2001 the European Parliament adopted a recommendation on the role of the European Union in combating terrorism. It should, moreover, be recalled that on 30 July 1996 twenty-five measures to fight against terrorism were advocated by the leading industrialised countries (G7) and Russia meeting in Paris.

(5) The European Union has adopted numerous specific measures having an impact on terrorism and organised crime, such as the Council Decision of 3 December 1998 instructing Europol to deal with crimes committed or likely to be committed in the course of terrorist activities against life, limb, personal freedom or property 4; Council Joint Action 96/610/JHA of 15 October 1996 concerning the creation and maintenance of a Directory of specialised counter-terrorist competences, skills and expertise to facilitate counter-terrorism cooperation between the Member States of the European Union 5; Council Joint Action 98/428/JHA of 29 June 1998 on the creation of a European Judicial Network 6, with responsibilities in terrorist offences, in particular Article 2; Council Joint Action 98/733/JHA of 21 December 1998 on making it a criminal offence to participate in a criminal organisation in the Member States of the European Union 7; and the Council Recommendation of 9 December 1999 on cooperation in combating the financing of terrorist groups 8.

(6) The definition of terrorist offences should be approximated in all Member States, including those offences relating to terrorist groups. Furthermore, penalties and sanctions should be provided for natural and legal persons having committed or being liable for such offences, which reflect the seriousness of such offences.

(7) Jurisdictional rules should be established to ensure that the terrorist offence may be effectively prosecuted.

(8) Victims of terrorist offences are vulnerable, and therefore specific measures are necessary with regard to them.

(9) Given that the objectives of the proposed action cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States unilaterally, and can therefore, because of the need for reciprocity, be better achieved at the level of the Union, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, this Framework Decision does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.

(10) This Framework Decision respects fundamental rights as guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and as they emerge from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States as principles of Community law. The Union observes the principles recognised by Article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union and reflected in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, notably Chapter VI thereof. Nothing in this Framework Decision may be interpreted as being intended to reduce or restrict fundamental rights or freedoms such as the right to strike, freedom of assembly, of association or of expression, including the right of everyone to form and to join trade unions with others for the protection of his or her interests and the related right to demonstrate.

(11) Actions by armed forces during periods of armed conflict, which are governed by international humanitarian law within the meaning of these terms under that law, and, inasmuch as they are governed by other rules of international law, actions by the armed forces of a State in the exercise of their official duties are not governed by this Framework Decision,

HAS ADOPTED THIS FRAMEWORK DECISION:

Article 1

Terrorist offences and fundamental rights and principles

1. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the intentional acts referred to below in points (a) to (i), as defined as offences under national law, which, given their nature or context, may seriously damage a country or an international organisation where committed with the aim of:

—  seriously intimidating a population, or

—  unduly compelling a Government or international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act, or

—  seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation,

shall be deemed to be terrorist offences:

(a)  attacks upon a person's life which may cause death;

(b)  attacks upon the physical integrity of a person;

(c)  kidnapping or hostage taking;

(d)  causing extensive destruction to a Government or public facility, a transport system, an infrastructure facility, including an information system, a fixed platform located on the continental shelf, a public place or private property likely to endanger human life or result in major economic loss;

(e)  seizure of aircraft, ships or other means of public or goods transport;

(f)  manufacture, possession, acquisition, transport, supply or use of weapons, explosives or of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons, as well as research into, and development of, biological and chemical weapons;

(g)  release of dangerous substances, or causing fires, floods or explosions the effect of which is to endanger human life;

(h)  interfering with or disrupting the supply of water, power or any other fundamental natural resource the effect of which is to endanger human life;

(i)  threatening to commit any of the acts listed in (a) to (h).

2. This Framework Decision shall not have the effect of altering the obligation to respect fundamental rights and fundamental legal principles as enshrined in Article 6 of the Treaty on European Union.

Article 2

Offences relating to a terrorist group

1. For the purposes of this Framework Decision, ‘terrorist group’ shall mean: a structured group of more than two persons, established over a period of time and acting in concert to commit terrorist offences. ‘Structured group’ shall mean a group that is not randomly formed for the immediate commission of an offence and that does not need to have formally defined roles for its members, continuity of its membership or a developed structure.

2. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the following intentional acts are punishable:

(a)  directing a terrorist group;

(b)  participating in the activities of a terrorist group, including by supplying information or material resources, or by funding its activities in any way, with knowledge of the fact that such participation will contribute to the criminal activities of the terrorist group.

Article 3

Offences linked to terrorist activities

Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that terrorist-linked offences include the following acts:

(a)  aggravated theft with a view to committing one of the acts listed in Article 1(1);

(b)  extortion with a view to the perpetration of one of the acts listed in Article 1(1);

(c)  drawing up false administrative documents with a view to committing one of the acts listed in Article 1(1)(a) to (h) and Article 2(2)(b).

Article 4

Inciting, aiding or abetting, and attempting

1. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that inciting or aiding or abetting an offence referred to in Article 1(1), Articles 2 or 3 is made punishable.

2. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that attempting to commit an offence referred to in Article 1(1) and Article 3, with the exception of possession as provided for in Article 1(1)(f) and the offence referred to in Article 1(1)(i), is made punishable.

Article 5

Penalties

1. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the offences referred to in Articles 1 to 4 are punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal penalties, which may entail extradition.

2. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the terrorist offences referred to in Article 1(1) and offences referred to in Article 4, inasmuch as they relate to terrorist offences, are punishable by custodial sentences heavier than those imposable under national law for such offences in the absence of the special intent required pursuant to Article 1(1), save where the sentences imposable are already the maximum possible sentences under national law.

3. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that offences listed in Article 2 are punishable by custodial sentences, with a maximum sentence of not less than fifteen years for the offence referred to in Article 2(2)(a), and for the offences listed in Article 2(2)(b) a maximum sentence of not less than eight years. In so far as the offence referred to in Article 2(2)(a) refers only to the act in Article 1(1)(i), the maximum sentence shall not be less than eight years.

Article 6

Particular circumstances

Each Member State may take the necessary measures to ensure that the penalties referred to in Article 5 may be reduced if the offender:

(a)  renounces terrorist activity, and

(b)  provides the administrative or judicial authorities with information which they would not otherwise have been able to obtain, helping them to:

(i) prevent or mitigate the effects of the offence;

(ii) identify or bring to justice the other offenders;

(iii) find evidence; or

(iv) prevent further offences referred to in Articles 1 to 4.

Article 7

Liability of legal persons

1. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that legal persons can be held liable for any of the offences referred to in Articles 1 to 4 committed for their benefit by any person, acting either individually or as part of an organ of the legal person, who has a leading position within the legal person, based on one of the following:

(a)  a power of representation of the legal person;

(b)  an authority to take decisions on behalf of the legal person;

(c)  an authority to exercise control within the legal person.

2. Apart from the cases provided for in paragraph 1, each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that legal persons can be held liable where the lack of supervision or control by a person referred to in paragraph 1 has made possible the commission of any of the offences referred to in Articles 1 to 4 for the benefit of that legal person by a person under its authority.

3. Liability of legal persons under paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not exclude criminal proceedings against natural persons who are perpetrators, instigators or accessories in any of the offences referred to in Articles 1 to 4.

Article 8

Penalties for legal persons

Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that a legal person held liable pursuant to Article 7 is punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties, which shall include criminal or non-criminal fines and may include other penalties, such as:

(a)  exclusion from entitlement to public benefits or aid;

(b)  temporary or permanent disqualification from the practice of commercial activities;

(c)  placing under judicial supervision;

(d)  a judicial winding-up order;

(e)  temporary or permanent closure of establishments which have been used for committing the offence.

Article 9

Jurisdiction and prosecution

1. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures to establish its jurisdiction over the offences referred to in Articles 1 to 4 where:

(a)  the offence is committed in whole or in part in its territory. Each Member State may extend its jurisdiction if the offence is committed in the territory of a Member State;

(b)  the offence is committed on board a vessel flying its flag or an aircraft registered there;

(c)  the offender is one of its nationals or residents;

(d)  the offence is committed for the benefit of a legal person established in its territory;

(e)  the offence is committed against the institutions or people of the Member State in question or against an institution of the European Union or a body set up in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community or the Treaty on European Union and based in that Member State.

2. When an offence falls within the jurisdiction of more than one Member State and when any of the States concerned can validly prosecute on the basis of the same facts, the Member States concerned shall cooperate in order to decide which of them will prosecute the offenders with the aim, if possible, of centralising proceedings in a single Member State. To this end, the Member States may have recourse to any body or mechanism established within the European Union in order to facilitate cooperation between their judicial authorities and the coordination of their action. Sequential account shall be taken of the following factors:

—  the Member State shall be that in the territory of which the acts were committed,

—  the Member State shall be that of which the perpetrator is a national or resident,

—  the Member State shall be the Member State of origin of the victims,

—  the Member State shall be that in the territory of which the perpetrator was found.

3. Each Member State shall take the necessary measures also to establish its jurisdiction over the offences referred to in Articles 1 to 4 in cases where it refuses to hand over or extradite a person suspected or convicted of such an offence to another Member State or to a third country.

4. Each Member State shall ensure that its jurisdiction covers cases in which any of the offences referred to in Articles 2 and 4 has been committed in whole or in part within its territory, wherever the terrorist group is based or pursues its criminal activities.

5. This Article shall not exclude the exercise of jurisdiction in criminal matters as laid down by a Member State in accordance with its national legislation.

Article 10

Protection of, and assistance to, victims

1. Member States shall ensure that investigations into, or prosecution of, offences covered by this Framework Decision are not dependent on a report or accusation made by a person subjected to the offence, at least if the acts were committed on the territory of the Member State.

2. In addition to the measures laid down in the Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA of 15 March 2001 on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings 1, each Member State shall, if necessary, take all measures possible to ensure appropriate assistance for victims'’families.

Article 11

Implementation and reports

1. Member States shall take the necessary measures to comply with this Framework Decision by 31 December 2002.

2. By 31 December 2002, Member States shall forward to the General Secretariat of the Council and to the Commission the text of the provisions transposing into their national law the obligations imposed on them under this Framework Decision. On the basis of a report drawn up from that information and a report from the Commission, the Council shall assess, by 31 December 2003, whether Member States have taken the necessary measures to comply with this Framework Decision.

3. The Commission report shall specify, in particular, transposition into the criminal law of the Member States of the obligation referred to in Article 5(2).

Article 12

Territorial application

This Framework Decision shall apply to Gibraltar.

Article 13

Entry into force

This Framework Decision shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal.

Done at Luxembourg, 13 June 2002.

For the Council

The President

M. RAJOY BREY

1 OJ C 332 E, 27.11.2001, p. 300.

2 Opinion delivered on 6 February 2002 (not yet published in the Official Journal).

3 OJ C 19, 23.1.1999, p. 1.

4 OJ C 26, 30.1.1999, p. 22.

5 OJ L 273, 25.10.1996, p. 1.

6 OJ L 191, 7.7.1998, p. 4.

7 OJ L 351, 29.12.1998, p. 1.

8 OJ C 373, 23.12.1999, p. 1.